One focus of the present research is the development and testing of new lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures for the fermentation of fruits and vegetables with special interest in African plant products.
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The aim is to identify lactic acid bacteria that are not only suitable as starter cultures, but also show probiotic activities. Such multifunctional starters may thus not only improve the quality, shelf life and the safety of these foods, but also contribute to consumer health. Genetic and taxonomical techniques are used to accurately identify bacteria and to describe novel species.
One may ask why we have selected these abovementioned specific foodborne pathogens. We selected these because they have been enlisted as important foodborne pathogens of animal origin. Besides, food contamination brings about enormous socio-economic strain on societies. Year-in year-out, world population and across continents are affected by foodborne pathogens. Not only are chances of contamination and spread of foodborne pathogens on the rise, these pathogens enter the food chain anytime between farm and fork A hypothetical scenario of susceptibility of microbial contamination, frequency of usage and daily cleaning routine of abovementioned kitchen components, is presented in Table 1.
The ratings provided in this table are hypothetical, presenting an ideal scenario wherein any given kitchen owner would possess a optimal knowledge and understanding of food hygiene and microbiological safety, and wherein the individual presumes high susceptibility of microbial contamination, all put together would then be resulting in an increase in the frequency of daily cleaning routine. Essentially, cross-contamination of foodborne pathogens in household kitchen are among the key contributors to global foodborne illnesses Besides, cross-contamination by bacteria can take place in many sites in the kitchen.
Also, materials that retain fewer microorganisms after cleaning would be the hygienic choice and would present a minor cross-contamination risk. When used utensils are washed in the kitchen, it is recommended that afterwards used utensils be kept in a thermoset plastic collection pack already equipped with a drain tray-like base, to allow for draining-off of water to achieve initial drying.
GST007 Developing food science skills: food microbiology and hygiene
It is also recommended that fluff-free dishcloths be used to equally ensure that these utensils, including pots etc. And the use of commercially available washing-up liquids can help play a useful role in sanitizing these surfaces. Routinely and within the stipulated time periods, refrigerators should be thoroughly cleaned so as to help sustain top-notch hygiene standards and prevent the accumulation of bad odour. And depending on frequency of usage, freezers on the other hand should be thoroughly cleaned now and then although the cleaning frequency in this context would be much less compared with those of refrigerators.
To maintain top-notch hygiene for all kitchen components requires consistency, diligence, perseverance and avoidance of procrastination. Consequently, it is common for these microorganisms to gain access to food. However, gaining access to food is one thing and growing in food is another. Principally, the factors that affect microbial growth in foods leading to spoilage have been largely classified in terms of intrinsic, extrinsic and biotic aspects.
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Specifically, whilst intrinsic factors inherent in food involve biological structures, pH, moisture, oxidation-reduction potential, antimicrobial constituents, and nutrient content, extrinsic factors storage environment , affecting both food and associated microorganisms, involve relative humidity, atmosphere and temperature. Biotic factors, on the other hand, involve synergism, growth rate and metabiosis On the other hand, it is important to note that, to be aware of food-related risks would not necessarily suffice to either incite and or motivate individuals to apply good hygiene practices.
Most probably, a change in how society of the day would perceive hygiene practices may well bring about some increases in microbiological hazards of home-prepared food s Besides, both quality and safety of food products are considered to depend highly on storage temperature even when considering the perspective of preparation, up to consumption stages.
Either above or below freezing points, cold storage appears to be the most common existing food preservation method. Therefore, for microbial growth to take place, there must be at least one viable cell even if the food item contains nutrients that would be sufficient to support microbial growth.
The importance and main hazards of foodborne diseases should not be underestimated. In the USA, the cases of foodborne disease are estimated to be of greatest numbers due to known pathogens such as Norovirus , Salmonella spp. Basically, foodborne illnesses caused by microorganisms are generally classified into two types: food infection and food intoxication.
For emphasis, a food-borne illness is classified as food infection if the illness results from the consumption of live microorganisms, in food, which may grow in the body of the consumer and cause symptoms. On the other hand, it becomes an intoxication when the illness results from consumption of toxins produced in the food by contaminant microorganisms.
Regardless, these illnesses may be avoided by knowledge of some basic facts about food safety. Factors that favor microbial growth in food have already been mentioned.
Therefore, microbiological safety practices are such that counter these favorable factors to make the food unfavorable for growth of microorganisms and their activities. A few common examples are described below:. Achieving high level microbiological safety within the kitchen context is not too difficult, but studies have showed that there is insufficient knowledge and practice of proper kitchen hygiene among home kitchen users, thus leading to an increased prevalence of food-handling mistakes in home kitchens Improper domestic food handling and unhygienic practices would be considered as vital in the extant sporadic cases of foodborne illnesses.
A healthy kitchen is therefore very essential in assuring high levels of food safety standards.
International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene (ICFMH)
For instance, avoiding germs is achievable by the four Cs of food safety, namely: cross-contamination, cleaning, cooking and chilling. Preventing cross-contamination ranges from washing hands before and immediately after handling raw food e. For example, such food products as beef, lamb, pork and seafood have been considered as key sources of bacteria contamination.
Particularly, the persistence of microorganisms, presence and density of pathogens and potential spread of microbial contaminants from contaminated food have been documented in scientific literature. Previously reported microbial surveys of risk of infection spread in the home considered the kitchen as highest given the significant variety of bacterial contaminants, including fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli , Campylobacter spp.
Some key aspects include detergent-based cleaning, chemical disinfectants, drying of surfaces decontamination , and household water treatment.
Thus, hand hygiene is very essential for the reason that the hand itself is among important source of cross-contamination. This situation can arise by contact and transfer of bacteria, fungi and viruses between hand and food surfaces, which would generally result in increased risk of exposure to foodborne infection. Moreover, hygiene procedures that break the chain of infection transmission are equally very crucial Another reservoir of microorganisms in the kitchen is the sink, given the presence of moisture that provides ideal substrate to support growth of resident microbial population.
Disinfection of sink therefore is recommended when there is an infected person, or person particularly vulnerable to infection. Routine cleaning and disinfection of sink is considered as appropriate means to prevent build-up of microbial biofilms at these sites Many studies have considered kitchen components, small example like, sponges as a vital diffuser of pathogens that can cross-contaminate food, which inevitably serves as reservoir of food pathogens such as E. And if transferred onto surfaces that are in contact with food in the kitchen , these microorganisms have the capacity to remain viable for either hours and or days after contamination Good percentage of Salmonella spp.
Salmonella spp. Most often and or always, dirty hands more or less do touch tap handles before hand washing.
Essentially, hygienic cleaning of hand and food contact places help to reduce risk of cross contamination 3. Meanwhile, hand washing during and after food preparation remains among control measures that help to reduce the occurrence of microbiological hazards especially within a given household Whilst cooking meat thoroughly kills microorganisms that can result in stomach upset, chilling foods to freezing temperature slows down microbial growth For some time now, microbial concerns about both kitchen floor and wall have been with much debate.
Although it would not always be plausible for consumers visitors, as in this instance to have access and view a household kitchen so as to determine how clean the kitchen that have produced a given food dish is. In the situation where they have access to it, upon seeing a clean floor and wall and presumably a very neat and well organized household kitchen , they visitors would certainly feel a lot more relaxed to consume the food dish brought before them. Hence, it would be worthwhile if future studies would pursue to fully establish how food hygiene versus cleaned kitchen environment would influence consumer feelings about food dish preparation, its consumption and even storage.
Nonetheless, routine disinfection of floors has still met much opposition for the reason that it would do little to reduce cross infection risk where such exist. However, hygienic cleaning using disinfectant products continue to remain advisable in specific situations of increased risk, more specifically involving the presence of either an infected person, and or those vulnerable to infection.
When spills of vomit, blood etc. With all above said in this section of this review, the primary aim of safe food hygiene practices still remain to remove unwanted contaminants as it can poison food, which could result in negative impact on community health Even at low doses, microbes can still bring about infection, for the reason that pathogens can survive starting from hours for up to weeks, and can do so on several household surfaces To better understand the potential competences of a kitchen user as mentioned earlier, a reflection of two hypothetical scenarios would be useful.
A scenario that do occur across various homes can be considered here, for example, where used kitchen utensils e. Such unwashed used utensils left in sink can promote food contamination especially if nearby, there is unfinished food dish in a pot and on the cooker to be consumed the very next day morning. Considering that cooker and sink may likely be near to each other as found in many small-like household kitchens, food contamination can take place, which may well bring about food poisoning. Clearly, literature has also reiterated that poor hygiene and improper food handling do pose a significant risk of food contamination as well as poisoning.
Indeed, consumers have a key role to play in the prevention of foodborne disease incidence. If a parent had either changed dippers or used the washroom or taking out the garbage, it is important to wash hands before and after. If gloves are worn, there should be caution because it can catch fire.
Generally, cleanliness of kitchen needs to be sustained and can be achieved by observing key basic routines, for example, disposing food scraps properly and removing crumbs, wiping table tops clean with soap, sweeping and wet mopping floors, cleaning all surfaces including handles and knobs, refrigerator handles, ovens, etc.
Dishcloths, aprons and towels should be laundered regularly using washing machine. Besides, cutting boards whether it is either plastic or wood for example should be cleaned, disinfected after use and allowed to dry properly prior to any re-use. Also, can openers, for example, should be cleaned thoroughly immediately after each use. Importantly, frozen food must be thawed either in refrigerator, microwave and oven, or by placing sealed packages in cold running water.
Importantly also, all kitchen users must adhere to instructions stated, for example, on grocery packs, etc. In addition, the essence of storing food in airtight containers is to ensure limited to zero aeration, and importantly, limited to zero exposure to any form of microbial elements. Essentially, whilst all spills should get cleaned immediately to avoid slipping and other kitchen accidents, it will largely minimize the incidence and spread of food pathogens Home kitchens are well known to serve, not only as storage place s , but also as multipurpose areas.
Kitchen sinks serve the purpose of dishwashing, soaking clothing, washing children, and wetting mops. That is to say that surfaces must be cleaned, rinsed, sanitized, and allowed to air dry And because most foodborne illnesses appear sporadic, mild, unconfirmed and unreported, researchers believe that the cases originating from food handling errors at home could be much higher although many consumers still do not consider the home a place of risk for foodborne illnesses Certainly, poor food hygiene practices would progress the incidence of foodborne diseases, which makes the implementation of food hygiene training very essential Besides, it is believed that the most food hygiene training courses may well show to rely heavily on the provision of useful information.
If food hygiene training were to be made effective, it needs to target some change s in those behaviors that would most likely result in food-borne illness No customer reviews.
Food microbiology and hygiene - P. R. Hayes - Google книги
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